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The launch of Free Primary Education (FPE) in Kenya in 2003 resulted to high enrolments of pupils in the primary schools. However only a small proportion of these pupils were able to access and complete their secondary education due to the cost implications of high school fees which was a burden to many parents. Towards this end the government of Kenya launched the Free Secondary Education (FSE) initiative in 2008 as a strategy to address the challenges brought about by the introduction of FPE. Concerns have however been raised over the implementation of the FSE programme. These concerns were not founded on any systematic studies or supported by empirical data. The purpose of this study therefore was to investigate the challenges facing the effective implementation of FSE in Kangundo District, Kenya in relation to adequacy of learning resources and funding to schools. The study employed a descriptive survey research design. The target population was 536 respondents consisting of 40 head teachers, 487 teachers and 9 education officers in Kangundo District. The sample size was 126 respondents, made up of 9 head teachers, 108 teachers, one DEO and two Zonal Quality Assurance and Standards Officers (ZQASOs). Proportionate sampling was used to select the head teachers and teachers while purposive sampling was used to select the DEO and ZQASOs. Questionnaires were used as instruments for collecting data from the head teachers and teachers while interview schedules were administered to the DEO and the Zonal Quality Assurance and Standards Officers (ZQASOs). Validity of the instruments was done through experts in research and piloting. Reliability was tested by subjecting the instruments to a pilot study through the split-half technique and then Spearman Brown Prophesy formula was used to compute a reliability coefficient, which was established at 0.68. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics after data cleaning and coding. Quantitative data was analyzed using frequency counts, means and percentages while qualitative data was analyzed by tallying the numbers of similar responses. Results of data analysis were presented using frequency distribution tables, bar graphs and pie charts. The study established that more students were able to attend schools as a result of free secondary education though this stressed the available resources in schools. The study therefore recommends for employment of more teachers to cater for the increasing students population, and also to provide more funds as the quality of education is usually pegged on teacher effectiveness and adequacy of funds. The findings of this study should stimulate continuous debate on FSE and also provide valuable insights that the government, stakeholders, scholars and researchers can rely on in their collective endeavour of addressing the challenges and making the FSE initiative a success.

Wanja Murithi


Discipline is the epicenter of success of a school and members of a school are required to strictly adhere to various standards or codes of behavior. Student discipline is a crucial factor in not only academic achievement but also success in other school activities. Principals in Tigania district have experienced various discipline problems leading to students strikes and poor academic achievement. This study therefore investigated the challenges principals face in enhancing student discipline. The purpose of the study was to identify challenges principals face in enhancing student discipline in Tigania District, Kenya. Literature review revealed that a lot has been done with regard to challenges that principals face in enhancing student discipline. However this matter has not been addressed in secondary schools in Tigania District. The research design used in this study was descriptive survey. A sample of 40 principals in public secondary schools was respondents in this study. All the secondary school principals in Tigania District were thus the study sample. A questionnaire and an interview schedule were the research instruments used for data collection. The instruments were validated by five experts in the Educational Management, Chuka University College. In this study qualitative data was generated. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Content analysis was also applied on the qualitative data generated. The findings of the study indicate that principals in Tigania district face challenges when enhancing student discipline. These include; humiliation by students, resistance from some parents, students strikes, political interference, drug abuse, teenage pregnancies, divergent cultural values and age gaps. The findings of this study would be useful for school administrators, Quality Assurance and Standards Officers and practicing teachers in addressing the challenges faced in enhancing student discipline.

Nkonge Bwiria


This study set to investigate the influence of principals’ leadership styles on secondary school teachers’ career commitment in Imenti South District, Kenya. The study sought to establish whether principal’s leadership style stimulates and sustains teachers’ career commitment. The study was guided by the Transformational leadership Theory, to test whether teachers under a principal who exhibits the transformational leadership styles of initiative, consideration and participative management had higher levels of career commitment than those working under principals who did not. The dependent variable for the study was teachers’ career commitment. The independent variable was principals’ leadership styles. The intervening variables were teachers’ gender and teaching experience. The study used descriptive survey design targeting all the 54 principals and 468 teachers from the 54 public secondary schools in Imenti South district. Stratified random sampling was used to select 48 schools, from which 48 principals and 240 teachers were selected to participate in the study. Data was collected using two questionnaires, one for principals and one for teachers. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data obtained, including frequency counts, means, percentages and ANOVA. The analysed data was presented in summary form using frequency distribution tables, bar graphs and pie charts. The study established that leadership styles of secondary school principals do not influence career commitment of teachers. However, demographic variables such as gender and working experience had an impact on career commitment of teachers. Female teachers were found to have a higher level of career commitment than their male counterparts. Novice teachers had high levels of career commitment, which declined as they stayed longer in the teaching profession before improving as they neared retirement. These findings have important implications for the structuring of careers for teachers. Since career commitment has been found to strongly correlate with turnover, the findings of this study suggest that teachers in the middle of their career (up to 10 years of work experience) may have higher intentions to quit than those with a few years of experience and those nearing retirement. It is hoped that the findings of the study will equip administrators with knowledge to influence the retention rate of teachers to the benefit the student, the teacher, and the school system.